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Most significant short-term business risks

The general economic development, functioning of the financial markets and the political environment in YIT’s operating countries have a significant impact on the company’s business. Negative development in consumers’ purchasing power, consumer or business confidence, the availability of financing for consumer or business, or general interest rate level would likely weaken the demand for YIT’s products and services. A drop in residential prices or an increase in investors’ yield requirements would pose a risk for the profitability of the company, should these factors materialise.

There is still significant uncertainty related to the economic development of Russia, although the situation seems to have improved. The volatility of the oil price and the ruble, geopolitical tensions and inflation may have an influence on the demand for apartments due to a weakening in purchasing power and consumer confidence. Declining purchasing power and oversupply of apartments also impact the development of residential prices.

In 2017, Finland accounted approximately for 68 per cent of the company’s revenue, which highlights the significance of Finland’s economic development for YIT’s business. The slowing growth of the Finnish economy and the indebtedness of the public sector may weaken consumers’ purchasing power and general confidence, which would have a negative impact on the demand for apartments and business premises. An increase of public sector debt could also make it more difficult to finance infrastructure investments. Investors have played a central role in YIT’s Finnish business in recent years. An increase in price levels, rental accommodation offering and / or weakening in tenant demand on the business premises or residential market and better yield of alternative investments could lead to a significant decrease in investor demand. Increased supply and slowdown of population growth or depopulation can pose a local risk for residential demand.

Ensuring competitive products and services corresponding to customer demand is critical for YIT’s business. Changes in customer preferences and in the competitors’ offerings present risks related to the demand for the company’s products and services. New competitors, business models and products on the housing market may present risks related to the demand for the company’s products and services.

Fluctuations in the price of raw materials may have an impact on financial performance. On of YIT’s single most significant purchased raw material is bitumen, and its price largely depends on the world market price of oil. The company manages the bitumen price risk with contractual terms and derivatives.

Especially in Finland and the CEE countries, the availability of the resources needed for growing the production volume might prevent increasing the production as planned. Competitors’ need for resources also presents a risk of losing key personnel and expertise. The overheating of market, should it materialise, has an impact on price levels and availability of resources.

The preparation of the planned merger takes time from the key personnel, causes uncertainty among employees and activates competitors to recruitment attempts. The company has taken planned measures to mitigate these risks. The total synergies from combining the companies are expected to be approximately EUR 40 million annually, and they are expected to materialise in full by the end of 2020. The assumptions related to the synergy benefits and integration costs are by nature uncertain and liable to numerous significant risks and uncertainties related to business, economy and competition. More detailed information on the risks related to the merger is published in the merger prospectus

Most of the company’s business is project business, meaning that successful project management plays an integral role in ensuring the company’s profit. The most significant project management risks are related to factors such as pricing, planning, scheduling, procurement, cost management and, in the company’s self-developed business, also the management of sales risk. YIT’s major business premises and infrastructure projects in Finland, such as the Tripla project, make up a significant share of the company’s expected revenue in coming years, meaning that successful project management in the projects is integral.

Generally increased activity in cyber criminality may cause risks for the company’s operations and information security. Malpractices of personnel may cause losses, financial or other, or risks to other employees.

Changes in legislation and authorities’ permit processes may slow down the progress of projects or prevent them from being realised. There are uncertainty factors related to authorities’ actions, permit processes and their efficiency particularly in Russia and the CEE countries.

The improvement of the capital turnover will continue as a part of normal business. The company’s target is to decrease the capital employed in Russia by RUB 6 billion by the end of 2018 compared situation of the end of June 2016. Measures to release capital in a challenging market situation involve the risk of financial losses.

The most significant financial risks are the risks related to foreign exchange rate development and the availability of financing. The availability of financing may be affected by negative development in Scandinavian residential construction market. The Group’s most significant currency risk is related to ruble-denominated investments, that will be covered in more detail in YIT’s Financial Statements 2017 the Capital structure and liquidity position section to be published in February, 2018. More information on financial risks and their management is provided in Note 28 to the financial statements.

Lemminkäinen’s legal proceedings

As a result of the execution of the merger between YIT and Lemminkäinen, all the all assets, debts and liabilities of Lemminkäinen, including on-going litigations, are transferred to YIT. Due to the merger YIT reports a summary of Lemminkäinen’s on-going litigations based on information published by Lemminkäinen. The litigations are covered more extensively in Lemminkäinen’s Financial Statements 2017 bulletin.

Damages related to the asphalt cartel

On September 6, 2017, the Supreme Court of Finland announced that it had granted leave to appeal to Lemminkäinen and certain cities regarding the legal proceedings concerning the damages related to the asphalt cartel.

On October 20, 2016, the Court of Appeal of Helsinki gave its decisions in the legal proceedings concerning the damages related to the asphalt cartel. According to the decisions, Lemminkäinen was entitled to receive refunds (based on Lemminkäinen’s own share and those shares of other defendants that Lemminkäinen has paid) in total approximately EUR 19 million consisting of capital as well as interest and legal expenses.

Lemminkäinen has as such deemed the claims for damages unfounded.

In addition, Lemminkäinen has been served summons regarding 21 claims against Lemminkäinen and other asphalt companies for damages. The capital amount of these claims is approximately EUR 26 million. For these claims, Lemminkäinen has made a provision worth approximately EUR 3.1 million based on the Helsinki Court of Appeal's decisions and the subsequent Supreme Court’s decisions regarding the applications for leave to appeal.

Quotas related to the use of recycled asphalt

On April 11, 2017, the Helsinki Court of Appeal gave its decision concerning environmental infraction charges. The decision is related to the quotas for the amount of recycled asphalt used in asphalt mass production, as defined in the environmental permits of the Lemminkäinen’s Sammonmäki asphalt plant in Finland.

As the District Court, the Court of Appeal viewed that the use of recycled asphalt in asphalt production does not spoil the environment. However, two Lemminkäinen employees were sentenced to fines for breaching the environmental protection law as the asphalt plant had used more recycled asphalt than allowed in the environmental permit. In addition, Lemminkäinen was sentenced to a confiscation of illegal profit of EUR 3.4 million.

Lemminkäinen has as such deemed the claim without foundation. Lemminkäinen and one of its employees have requested leave to appeal from the Supreme Court concerning Helsinki Court of Appeal's decision.

Quality concerns related to ready-mixed concrete

In its construction business Lemminkäinen uses as a raw material, among other things, ready-mixed concrete. During the year 2016, especially in some infrastructure projects, suspicions have arisen that the ready-mixed concrete used in Finland would not entirely fulfill the predetermined quality requirements.

The Hospital District of Southwest Finland, as client in the project for the construction of the concrete deck of the T3 building of Turku University Hospital, has presented claims for damages to Lemminkäinen relating to the quality of the ready-mixed concrete. The capital amount of these claims is currently approximately EUR 17 million.

According to Lemminkäinen, the responsible party for the quality of the concrete is the supplier. Consequently, Lemminkäinen has filed a claim for compensation from the supplier regarding the expenses relating to possible quality deviations. The capital amount of the claim is currently approximately EUR 20 million.

Lemminkäinen has not made any provisions for the claims.